High school students are not guaranteed success in college when they have completed college-preparatory courses (Conley, p. 4). Preparation for the graduate would come from their high schools curriculum that would: (a) measure student academic progress; (b) observe the methods in which states, districts, schools, principals, and teachers are educating students; and (c) observe teachers adjusting their educating styles (DOE, 2010 p. 8). In high school English, mathematics, and science courses, students have not been taught how to draw inferences, interpret results, analyze conflicting source documents, support arguments with evidence, solve complex problems that have no obvious answer, draw conclusions, offer explanations, conduct research, and generally think deeply about what they are being taught. (Conley, 2007c, p. 23).
An example of one state giving academic support to their entering freshmen is Florida. It has the developmental courses (college preparatory courses) that provide remedial instruction to address students academic deficiencies and enable them to gain the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in college-level coursework (Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability, 2007, p. 2).
In 2006, 55% of entry-level freshmen needed developmental courses. Eighty-nine percent needed academic support in mathematics while sixty-two percent needed help in more than one concentration. Florida requires by law that developmental courses are taught in its 28 community colleges. If university students needed academic support, the 10 Florida state universities would have contracts with the community colleges to give them college preparatory support. (Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability, 2007, p.2).
They conducted a review on the performance of degree-seeking entry-level college students. When they enrolled during the period from 2000-01 to 2003-04, 52% of the students who were identified as needing remediation finished that preparatory track by 2005. The level of remediation was able to show how well or how poorly the students would perform in college (Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability, 2007).
Aarons, D. I. (2009). Enthusiasm builds for data systems. Education Week, 28(34), 18-19.Adelman, C. (2008). Accountability “light”: Our version is going the way of the dollar vs. the euro. Liberal Education, 94(4), 6-13.Boylan, H. (2001). Making the case for developmental education. Research in Developmental Education, 12(2), 1-4. Boylan, H. (2002). What works: Research-based best practices in developmental education. Boone, NC: Continuous Quality Improvement Network with the National Center for Developmental Education.Boylan, H. R. & Bonham, B. S. (2011). Seven myths about developmental education. Research & Teaching in Developmental Education, 27(2), 29-36.Boylan, H., Bliss, L., & Bonham, B. (1994). National study of developmental education: Characteristics of faculty and staff. Paper presented at the National Association for Developmental Education Conference. Retrieved from http://www.ncde.appstate.edu/reservereading/Outcomes_of Remediation.htmBoylan, H., Bliss, L., Bonham, B., & Claxton, C. (1992). The state of the arts in developmental education. Paper presented at the First National Conference on Research in Developmental Education, Charlotte, NC. Retrieved from http://www.ncde.appstate.edu/ reserve_reading/Outcomes of Remediation.htmBoylan, H. R., & Bonham, B. S. (2007). 30 years of developmental education: A retrospective. Journal of Developmental Education, 30(3), 2-4.Chaffee, J. (1992). Critical thinking skills: The cornerstone of developmental education. Journal of Developmental Education, 15(3), 2-8, 39.Conley, D. (2007c). The challenge of college readiness. Educational Leadership, 64(7), 2329.Conley, D. (2008b). Rethinking college readiness. New England Journal of Higher Education, 22(5), 2426.Conley, D. (2010a). Eligible and ready for college. Principal Leadership, 1822.Conley, D. (2010b). Replacing remediation with readiness. Invitational conference on developmental education sponsored by the National Center for Postsecondary Research. New York, NY.Conley, D. (2010c). College and career ready: Helping all students succeed beyond high school. San Francisco, CA.Department of Education (DOE). (2010). A blueprint for reform: The reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Washington, DC.Harris, J., & Eleser, C. (1997). Developing critical thinking: Melding two imperatives. Journal of Developmental Education, 21(1), 12-19.Los Medanos College. (2011). Developmental education program. Retrieved from http://www.losmedanos.edu/deved/studentsupport.aspMiraCosta College. (2011). Developmental skills initiative. Retrieved from http://www.miracosta.edu/instruction/english/developmentalskillsinitiative.htmlObama, B. (2011). President Obama calls on Congress to fix No Child Left Behind before the start of the next school year. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/14/president-obama-calls-congress-fix-no-child-left-behind-start-next-schooOffice of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability. (2007). Steps can be taken to reduce remediation rates; 78% of Community College Students, 10% of University Students Need Remediation. Report No. 06-40. Retrieved from http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/reports/pdf/0640rpt.pdfPatton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Roueche, J. E. & Roueche, S. D. (2003). Making remedial education work: Community colleges still have a long way to go to meet the needs of at-risk students. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education & Accreditation, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.aahea.org/bulletins/articles/remedial.pdf/remedial.pdf